This post originally appeared on 9Marks blog. Jonathan Leeman, an elder at Capitol Hill Baptist Church in Washington, DC, is the editorial director of 9Marks and the author of Church Membership: How the World Knows Who Represents Jesus. You can follow him on Twitter at @JonathanDLeeman.
How Mark Dever Passes Out Authority
Here are 20 ways Mark Dever distributes authority, followed by 10 ways this shapes our church culture. Some apply just to lead pastors; many apply to all of us.
WAYS TO DISTRIBUTE AUTHORITY
1. Build the church on the gospel. No matter who is teaching, the gospel must be front and center. Pastor Mark established this pattern. When relationships and power structures are grounded in the gospel, people use their authority not to lord it over one another, but to serve one another (Matt. 20:25-28).
2. Establish a plurality of staff and non-staff elders. In an elder board composed exclusively of staff elders, each man may possess one vote, but the staffing structure imposes a hierarchy. Adding non-staff elders to the board disrupts and flattens that hierarchy.
3. Limit the percentage of main-slot preaching. Mark, with the elders’ agreement, limits himself to preaching 50 to 65 percent of Sunday mornings. That way, other voices have the chance to grow and gain authority. The congregation becomes more dependent on the Word than on one man.
4. Create many other opportunities to teach. Our church has about 80 teaching slots for adult Sunday School classes over the course of the year (each slot consists of a 7 to 13 week class), as well as 52 chances to preach a Sunday evening devotion, as well as a couple dozen chances to teach a Wednesday night Bible study. All told, there are around 150 chances for other men to teach the congregation, and I have not even mentioned small groups. When men prove proficient in teaching, they accrue authority.
5. Seldom (or never) preach the Sunday evening service. Mark never preaches in our church’s Sunday evening service. Instead the church hears from an elder or a would-be elder.
6. Give young teachers the chance to make mistakes. I can think of one or two instances where a teacher or preacher said something so inappropriate that he was not asked to teach again. But generally speaking, young teachers have a lot of leeway in our church to be boring and make mistakes. Since the church is more dependent on the Word than on Pastor Mark, they have much patience for the young men.
7. Let others steal your ideas. Mark freely lets other teachers inside the church adapt his anecdotes, borrow his best lines, and mimic his messages.
8. Be willing to lose elder votes. I’ve heard of other senior pastors who “never lose votes.” When that’s the case, you almost might as well get rid of your elders. Talk about undermining their leadership!
9. Be slow to speak, and speak sparingly in elders meetings. Three times a year, the elders welcome a number of pastors from other churches to observe our elders meetings. These pastors often mention their surprise at how little Mark speaks, and how willing other elders are to disagree with them.
10. Don’t be the chairman in elders meetings or members meetings. Giving another man the chance to be chairman who both sets the agenda and leads the meeting is an easy way to distribute authority.
11. Let other elders lead the congregation through difficult issues in members meetings. When it comes to leading the church through church discipline cases, big financial decisions, or other tough topics, the elder who has been most involved may be the best one to lead the church publicly.
12. Use an “invitations committee.” If you are a pastor who receives regular invitations to speak outside your church, use a committee of staff members and/or elders to help you review those invitations. And be willing to let them guide and even determine the decision.
13. Be devoted to one thing in the church and give freedom elsewhere. Mark is utterly devoted to preparing sermons and keeps a loose grip on most everything else. So if you want to see the church doing more in some area, he’ll let you do it and keep his hands off. This “outs” other natural leaders.
14. Don’t micromanage. There are a few areas Mark micromanages, like making sure his staff are present at meetings and services on time. But in just about everything else, he gives free reign. Micromanagement not only exhausts a leader, it undermines the initiative of others.
15. Review weekly services. Structuring a time into a church leadership’s weekly schedule for giving and receiving feedback over Sunday’s services teaches men to evaluate, to think, and to love the congregation better. It grows them as leaders. Plus…
16. Be willing to receive criticism. Mark sets the example by inviting criticism. This gives other would-be leaders room to spread their wings. If you never receive criticism, you are teaching everyone around you that they must conform to your preferences or be punished. Leaders don’t grow in this kind of environment. They whither or leave.
17. Invite lay elders to give feedback on services. Mark does not require lay elders to attend the weekly service review times, but he always invites them to attend and give feedback.
18. Pray for other churches and other denominations. Publicly praying for other churches and denominations helps to defeat tribalism and focuses us on the gospel instead of the church leader. This in turn engenders further gospel initiative among other budding leaders in the church.
19. Be quick to forgive. Mark is one of the most quickly forgiving people I know. Alternatively, it’s hard for a fault-finder to give away authority. If you only see faults, you won’t trust or entrust. Yet if you are quick to forgive, you will find it easier to entrust and empower others.
20. Rejoice in the victories of others. Do you have to be the one to make the shot, or are you happy to make the assist? Mark rejoices in the victories of others as much as his own. If someone else can do the job, he would prefer it. This leaves him free to do something else.
HOW GIVING AWAY AUTHORITY SHAPES A CHURCH CULTURE
When the leader “on top” is characterized by generously giving authority to his lay elders and others in the church, he shapes the church’s culture in wonderful ways.
1. It helps to keep the gospel uppermost. Giving away authority focuses the church’s eyes on their gospel purposes rather than on the leader.
2. It promotes “real” relationships. In an environment where authority is jealously guarded, relationships are characterized by politics and strategy. Guards remain up, vulnerabilities are not exposed, and transparency diminishes. But when people feel empowered they are more likely to be transparent and honest.
3. It keeps a church from being tribalistic. A man who continually gives away authority teaches those around him that he is most interested in the success of the gospel, regardless of who’s leading (see Phil. 1:12f).
4. It encourages church members to share resources. When I see the leader is not out for himself, I too become inclined to give to others.
5. It destroys natural social hierarchies. Our church is filled with people with “impressive” jobs, the kind that create social hierarchies. Yet what’s striking is that members interact as equals. Why? Because the gospel is kept in the center. We’re all sinners saved by grace. Also, Mark doesn’t use any of his stature to lord it over others. This sets a pattern.
6. It cultivates trust. When I see the leaders is not out for himself, it’s easier to trust his motives, even when he is asking me to make a sacrifice.
7. It cultivates teachability and the willingness to receive criticism. Again, if I trust the man, I become more willing to listen to his criticisms of me. I trust they are rooted in love rather than one-upmanship.
8. It promotes a willingness to forgive. When the leader is quick to forgive the faults of others, he will more willing to entrust others with authority. That in turn will help others to do the same.
9. It encourages the church to be training-minded. A church which sees a pastor continually work to train and empower others will have a hard time not catching the vision and sharing it. They will see all the fruit.
10. It helps a church to be outward focused. The process of raising up and sending out leaders helps a church realize a church’s goal is not just to make our own house the best it can be, but to help other houses become happier and healthier, too.
Now, delegation can be done poorly or lazily. Wisdom is required to delegate well. I’ve heard Mark say he assumes that God has given everyone some instrument in the orchestra to play, and part of his job is helping people figure out which instrument is theirs.
The question comes down to heart posture: are we happy to see others gain authority, or do we jealously guard it, afraid that people might surpass us? If the former, what are we doing to spread it?
By Jonathan Leeman